This guide serves as an explanation of various notable mechanics in Epic Seven. These include difficult to understand or unintuitive mechanics, and provides tested and detailed explanations.

Damage Formula

The Damage Formula is:
Damage = Raw Damage x Mitigation

where the Raw Damage =

\[ {[(Attack)*(Multiplier)*(1.871)+(Stat)*(Multiplier)+(Flat)]}*\]\[(POW)*(Element)*(Hit)*(Target)*\]\[(Conditional Damage)*(Skill Enhancement)\]


  • Attack Stat: Characters attack counting buffs.
  • Attack Multiplier: Each skill’s unique multiplier.
  • Secondary Stat/Multiplier: For Heroes like Vildred who have additional scalings.
  • Flat Damage: For sources of flat damage like Daydream Joker, or Dark Corvus S3.
  • POW: Another skill unique multiplier.
  • Element Advantage: 1.1 if strong vs target Element, 1.0 otherwise.
  • Hit: Hit chance modifier, Critical Damage% if Critical Stike, 1.3 if Crushing Blow, 1.0 if Normal, 0.75 if Miss.
  • Target: 1.15 if afflicted with Target debuff.
  • Conditional Damage: Many multipliers including, but not limited to: Sigret’s Skill 3, Wyvern Element Advantage, Exclusive Equipments. These damage modifiers are multiplicative.
  • Skill Enhancement: Skill Enhancement damage varies depending on the Skill.

and Mitigation =

\[\frac{(1 – DamageReduction)*(1 – DamageMitigation)
} {((Defense)*(1-Defense Penetration)/300) + 1}\]
  • Damage Reduction: e.g. Aurius, T. Crozet
  • Damage Mitigation: e.g. Adamant Shield, C. Armin, Otille
  • Defense Penetration: e.g. Elyha’s Knife, R. Violet, Landy

Combat Readiness and Speed

Combat Readiness (CR) – CR is the progress of a character (from 0%-100%) towards starting its turn.
Speed – A character’s speed stat increases the rate of Combat Readiness gained.

Starting RNG: At the start of each combat, all characters randomly gain 0-5% Combat Readiness. 

If a character has its CR increased over 100%, the game will continue to keep track of the additional CR, despite it being displayed as 100%. After its turn ends, the leftover CR will not carry over, and the unit starts again at 0% CR.

If multiple units are at or above 100% CR at the same time, the character with the highest CR above 100% will take the next turn, followed by subsequent units with lower CR. i.e. the unit at 120% CR will take its turn, followed by the unit at 110% CR. No units can gain natural CR until all units at or above 100% CR have taken the turn.

Revived characters keep their CR from before their death.

For example, A. Vildred gains 100% CR upon revival, in addition to the CR he had before death, so in many cases will “cut” in between Heroes already at 100% CR.

Hit Types and Criticals

There are 4 unique Hit Types, and they are as follows:

Miss: 75% damage, no chance to apply debuffs from skills. Small grey text + Miss appears.

Critical Strike: Uses your Critical Damage as a multiplier. Orange numbers. More likely to occur on an Elementally Advantageous hit.

Crushing Hit: 130% damage. Large Grey numbers. More likely to occur on an Elementally Advantageous hit.

Normal Hit: 100% damage, Regular grey numbers.

The priority for hits is Miss > Critical > Crushing > Normal, (An attack cannot be a Critical Hit if is a Miss).

Critical Chance is capped at 100% and cannot exceed this cap.
Critical Hit Reduction is a a 50% additive decrease to Critical Chance, and occurs post-cap.

The formula for calculating Critical Chance on a non-Miss hit is:
\[Critical Chance = ceiling(Critical Stat, 100)  –  Critical Hit Reduction\]


On Dual Attacks, counterattacks may trigger on either attack, but not both. If the first attack triggers a counterattack, the counterattack will hit the first unit that attacked, and a counterattack cannot trigger on the second attack. If the second attack triggers a counterattack, the counterattack will hit the second unit that attacked.

Counter Attack chances are additive, except for unique skill related counters (Violet Skill 2)

Extra attacks, Debuffs, and Additional Damage effects cannot trigger counterattacks.

Counterattacks trigger all effects a regular attack does, except for counterattacks, Dual Attacks, and Extra Attacks.

Dual Attack

Dual Attack Chance is the chance to attack an enemy after an ally has attacked them, and is unique to each character.. Only 1 Dual Attack may proc per turn.

Dual Attacks do not trigger additional effects with a few exceptions: 

Charles may trigger Skill 2, Smash, off of a Dual Attack Skill 1, Slash.

B. Romann may trigger Mana Burst, after a Dual Attack Skill 1, Mana Arrow.

Dust Devil, Cermia and Luluca Exclusive Equipments can proc on a Dual Attack.

Dual Attacks activate all effects as a normal use of Skill 1 otherwise.

Additional Damage

Additional Damage effects are damage effects that take place at the end of each turn. All Additional Damage procs do not count as attacks, but are their own unique damage type. 

Most sources of Additional Damage (Reingar’s Special Drink, Uberius Tooth, ML. Iseria) penetrate Defense, while some others deal Fixed Damage (XVI. The Tower). 

Uniquely, Additional Damage procs are seperate from attack damage, and as such allows characters with Immortal to be killed in one turn. (ML Iseria, Sol w/ Uberius Tooth vs Kayron).

AI Priority

For PvE content, unless otherwise stated:
Monsters will attack the front slot 40% of the time, and all other slots at 20% each. 

Certain monsters may have mechanics with unique targeting, such as Wyvern’s front slot targeting. These are normally a part of passive skills and noted in the skill descriptions.

For Player and PvP AI Heroes, the default targeting is as follows:

  1. Avoid invincible targets.
  2. Target Boss-type enemy if present.
  3. Target elemental advantage if present.
  4. Target with lowest % health
  5. Random 

Support skills prioritize targets that are the most relevant. (Heals: Lowest HP%, Attack Buffs: Highest Attack). However, certain skills may have unique targeting that overrides the default.

Default Skill Priority:
Skill 3 > Skill 2 > Skill 1

Many Heroes have their own unique priority (Karin: Skill 2 > Skill 3), or specific triggers (Montmorancy Skill 3: Allied Health <80%). Heroes may also have unique conditions (S. Baal and Sezan Skill 3: Self HP% < 60%)

In all cases, specified targeting conditions take priority.

Stat Caps

Some stats a Hero may have cannot exceed a maximum amount.

  • Critical Chance: 100%
  • Critical Damage: 350% 
  • Dual Attack Chance: 20%

Critical Damage is capped at 350%, and cannot be exceeded through the Critical Damage buff, but can be exceeded with the use of Draco Plate.

Dual Attack Chance artifacts may exceed the cap. (Rosa Hargana/Infinity Basket)

Effectiveness and Effect Resistance

Whenever an attacker attempts to apply a debuff, the below process follows:

  1. The attack is evaluated to be a Hit or a Miss. If Miss, the attack cannot apply debuffs, except for those from Artifacts (and Dizzy).
  2. The chance to attempt a debuff, this is the number on the Skill or the Artifact, is rolled. If the attempt succeeds, proceed to the next step.
  3. The chance of the debuff not being resisted is calculated by 100% + Attacking Effectiveness – Target Effect Resistance, with a maximum chance of 85%. Effect Resistance ignoring effects (Basar Soulburn) only affect this step.

Some skills will apply multiple debuffs in one check (Kitty Clarissa S2), while others have multiple checks per-debuff (Dizzy). 

There is NO minimum chance to apply a debuff, if the target has 100% more Effect Resistance than the attacker has Effectiveness, the debuff will never apply.

The threshold for the maximum chance to apply a debuff is Target ER – 15%.

Immunity vs Debuffs

The Immunity Buff prevents the application of all debuffs, Combat Readiness decrease, and Cooldown increases.

The Unbuffable debuff prevents application of all buffs, but does NOT prevent Combat Readiness increases, or Cooldown decreases.

Revenge Set

Revenge set’s scaling Speed multiplier scales with current HP% and uses the unit’s base Speed, not total Speed.


Lifesteal effects heal based on the raw damage dealt and will heal even if damage is mitigated by barriers, invincibility, or other similar sources of damage mitigation. 

Damage over Time Debuffs

Poisons: Deals damage equal to 5% of afflicted character’s max health at the start of their turn. Ignores Defense.

Burns: Deals damage equal to 60% of the caster’s Attack (including Attack buffs and debuffs) at the time damage is taken, at the start of the turn. Penetrates 70% defense.

Bleeds: Deals damage equal to 30% of the caster’s attack (including Attack buffs and debuffs) at the time the Bleed was applied, at the start of the turn. Penetrates 70% defense.

Magic Nail: Deals damage equal to 2% of the afflicted character’s max health when hit. Ignores Defense.

These debuffs expire at the start of the debuffed character’s turn.


The Sleep debuff decreases Critical Hit Resistance by 100%, and is only removed when expired or when damage is taken to health. Barriers and Invincibility block damage, and characters that are hit with these buffs and do not have damage dealt to their health will not have their Sleep removed.

Stealing Barriers

Barriers stolen by buff transfer effects (ML. Rin, XVIII, The Moon) keep their value at the time of stealing. Damage from ML. Rin will reduce the size of the barrier before it is stolen.